Compression tools are used to compress one or more files. Archiving tools collect files and their metadata together to produces one file.
We will look at basic usage of following compression and archiving tolls.
gzip and gunzip (can achieve better compression compared to ZIP)
bzip2 and bunzip2
Using gzip and gunzip
The gzip command creates a compressed file of each of the files specified at the command line and adds .gz extention to each one of them.
Lets compress files user1.txt, user2.txt, user3.txt, user4.txt
#ls user1.txt user2.txt user3.txt user4.txt #gzip user1.txt user2.txt user3.txt user4.txt #ls user1.txt.gz user2.txt.gz user3.txt.gz user4.txt.gz
Alternatively you can run gzip * to compress all files in current directory
To uncompress this files we need to run gunzip or gzip -d
#gunzip user1.txt.gz user2.txt.gz #ls user1.txt user2.txt user3.txt.gz user4.txt.gz #gzip -d user3.txt.gz user4.txt.gz #ls user1.txt user2.txt user3.txt user4.txt
Using bzip2 and bunzip2
This is another compression tool similar to gzip. the usage is very similar to gzip also.
#ls user1.txt user2.txt user3.txt user4.txt #bzip2 * #ls user1.txt.bz2 user2.txt.bz2 user3.txt.bz2 user4.txt.bz2
To uncompress the files use bunzip2 or bzip2 -d
#ls user1.txt.bz2 user2.txt.bz2 user3.txt.bz2 user4.txt.bz2 #bunzip2 user1.txt.bz2 user2.txt.bz2 #ls user1.txt user2.txt user3.txt.bz2 user4.txt.bz2 #bzip2 -d user3.txt.bz2 user4.txt.bz2 #ls user1.txt user2.txt user3.txt user4.txt
Archiving with tar
Tar command creates, appends, updates, lists and extracts files to and from a single file called tarball or tar file. Tar can also be instructed to compress an archive while it is being created. Using -j compresses tarball with bzip2 and -z will use gzip for compression.
Here is an example of how to tarball test directory and compress it with gzip
#tar cvfz test.tar.gz test/ test/ test/user1.txt test/user3.txt test/user2.txt test/user4.txt #ls test test.tar.gz
Here is an example on tarball with bzip2 compression
#tar cvjf test.tar.bz2 test/ test/ test/1.txt test/2.txt test/3.txt #ls test test.tar.bz2
Few more useful tar commands
list contents of tar
#tar tvf test.tar.bz2 2016-03-01 09:54 test/ 2016-03-01 09:54 test/1.txt 2016-03-01 09:54 test/2.txt 2016-03-01 09:54 test/3.txt
Restore tar file
#tar xvf test.tar.bz2 test/ test/1.txt test/2.txt test/3.txt #ls test test.tar.bz2
Using zip and unzip
This is another compression and archiving tool that is very popular with windows users but can also be used in Linux
To zip files
zip file.zip file1 file2 file3
#zip -r test.zip test adding: test/ (stored 0%) adding: test/1.txt (stored 0%) adding: test/2.txt (stored 0%) adding: test/3.txt (stored 0%) #ls test test.zip
To unzip file